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Journal - Volume 3, Issue 1 & 2, June - December 2017

Spoken Language: Some Specific and A Perspective
Asoke Kumar Datta
Abstract The paper presents the formal composition of the Prof. Suniti Kumar Chatterji Memorial Lecture-III. Objective research on speech in India began in late sixties with the availability of instruments for objectively quantifying different aspects of speech. One of the pioneering research institutes in India engaged in this effort was Indian Statistical relation to the dialect Standard Colloquial Bengali (referred to as Bangla hereinafter) among Institute (ISI). This paper presents the synopsis of the work done for about five decades there in some other spoken languages. The presentation attempts to make it intelligible to students of spoken languages. It includes a discussion of the paradigm of research in spoken language. It is necessary because an intimate wholesome inquiry in spoken language needs to span two branches of knowledge gathering namely, subjective and objective.
In the objective domain the paper discusses two different approaches for representation namely, spectral and time domain representations of speech sounds. The subjective categorization of some units of speech sounds is discussed. The objective cues for cognition of different phones are discussed in some details. Some new approaches, alternative to the traditional approach in spoken language research, which were experimented upon in ISI find some mention in the article.
In the objective domain the paper discusses two different approaches for representation namely, spectral and time domain representations of speech sounds. The subjective categorization of some units of speech sounds is discussed. The objective cues for cognition of different phones are discussed in some details. Some new approaches, alternative to the traditional approach in spoken language research, which were experimented upon in ISI find some mention in the article.
Finally the article advocates for the holistic approach in place of reductionist approach for a Spoken language A tentative model for spoken language research is also prescribed.
The New NDA Government and Sino-Indian Relations: Expectations and Uncertainties
Srikanth Kondapalli
Abstract While it has been two years since the new National Democratic Alliance (NDA) has been in power and hence a holistic assessment cannot be reached for this short span, some expectations can be charted out on the foreign policy front in general and on China in particular. Since May 2014, after the new NDA government was formed a number of foreign policy initiatives have been undertaken with some on China as well. Structurally while the India-China relations were conditioned by the last several decades of interactions and issues such as the unresolved territorial dispute, Tibet, China’s nuclear and conventional arms support to Indian neighbourhood and entry into the Indian Ocean, the new leaders in both countries have tried to take several initiatives to go beyond the constraints. Even though much progress has been achieved specifically in high level leadership exchanges, trade and economic cooperation, people-to-people contacts and the like, a number of uncertainties have also crept in the bilateral relations.
Keywords Leadership exchanges, Bilateral relations
Suniti Kumar Chatterji and Bangla Grammar
Pabitra Sarkar
Abstract The evolution of ideas does not always follow a straight, simple course. One idea does not end on a certain day, terminating its life convincingly, nor does another idea begin right away thereafter. There are overlaps and great works often situate themselves in such overlapping spaces. I would say that Suniti Kumar Chatterji’s The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language (1926), his magnum opus, is such a work. It is somewhat anachronistic, as historical and comparative linguistics, of which it is one of the finest specimens, was officially given a farewell more than a decade earlier, in the teachings of Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913). I don’t know if Suniti Kumar was aware of Saussure’s book (organized by his students) Cours de Linguistique Générale (1916) when it was first published in French. He must have read it later, by which I mean, during or after his expansive research on the historical evolution of Bangla was done. Even if he had an early exposure to Saussure’s theories, that could scarcely detract him out of his chosen course, which was to write a definitive history of Bangla. Therefore, ODBL stands as a great and glorious anachronism in the history of linguistic ideas, harking back an earlier idea, but one that has enriched the science of linguistics.
Keywords ODBL, Historical evolution of Bangla.
Impact of Indian Cottons on starting Cotton Cultivation and Production in China
Padmini Tolat Balaram
Abstract In the world of textiles, India was famous for its cottons and China was known for its silks. China was one of the earliest eastern markets for Indian Textiles. High class Chinese usually wore silk while hemp was used for making casual dresses of common classes. In his book Hanshu (History of the (Former) Han Dynasty), Ban Gu (CE 32~92) has noted that Emperor Wudi received several Indian goods as present and cloth was one of the items included in his list of presents received. Trade between India and China existed even before the establishment of the famous silk road in 1st century BCE. This paper talks about the starting of cotton trade between India and China before and after establishment of cotton cultivation in China in 12th century CE. It discusses the types of Indian textiles that reached China via different routes, their use, popularity and demand in China and its impact on starting cotton cultivation and production in China. It also mentions the types of cotton textiles which continued to be imported from India even after establishment of cotton industry in China.
Keywords bilateral, colonies, currency, export, historical, Silk Road, spice-trade, textiles
Indo-China Imbroglio: Looking through the Prism of Brahmaputra Issue
Satabdi Das
Abstract The proposed diversion of the Brahmaputra’s water and a series of dam building at the upper reaches of it by China, that significantly alters the river’s course and flow and creates water scarcity to downstream nations, have introduced ripples of anxiety in India and Bangladesh. The Brahmaputra water issue has the potential to be a source of an enduring discord between India and China at a time when the latter’s intention is to make geopolitical advances in the northern sphere of the country, which has already escalated tension in the whole region. The worst affected downstream Northeastern Indian states like Assam and Arunachal Pradesh have urged the Central Government to take effective diplomatic steps to resolve the crisis. In such a situation the NDA government has taken several diplomatic steps. However, these efforts are not sufficient. Both the stakeholders must go beyond the narrow confines of self-interested behaviour as co-operation may yield better results than rivalry in water insecurity related crisis. Regional political turmoil as well as territorial disputes should not impede the efforts to reach a consensual deal for addressing the shared water resources related problems.
Keywords riparian, Brahmaputra River, Northeast India, NDA government.
India’s Leap from ‘Look East’ to ‘Act East’ : A Subtle Twist in India’s Foreign Policy
Archita Ghose
Abstract India’s prolong effort towards promoting cordial economic and strategic ties with its Southeast Asian neighbouring countries has recently brought the nation at such a juncture that the nation’s foreign policy posture is exposing its shift from Look East to Act East. India’s present Prime Minister Narendra Modi, during the ASEAN- India Summit, which was held on 12th November, 2014 in Naypyidaw (Myanmar’s capital), and later in his speech which he delivered at the East Asia Summit held on 13th November, 2014, signalled country’s departure from the Look East policy to the Act East policy. As the Look East policy has been gradually losing its utility, so to give more impetus to all the projects and proposals which if implemented properly will strengthen bilateral and multilateral ties between India and its Southeast and East Asian neighbouring countries, Mr. Modi has brought the Act East policy in limelight. He is taking sincere initiative to welcome such a change in the nation’s foreign policy stance to churn out more positive output out of the growing cordial ties, as well as, to put a check on any sort of inadequate measures which if kept unnoticed, China will surely take the advantage.
Keywords connectivity, cooperation, economic, strategic, infrastructure, integration, investment, trade
Period of Construction :Sino-Indian Bilateral Trade Relations from 1991 to 1995
Anirban Ghosh
Abstract Sino-Indian bilateral trade had resumed in 1977 after a gap of almost two decades and it took another ten years to revive the actual potential. Two Governments were sincere to develop a stable trade and economic relations and had adopted various promotional policies. The period has been marked for the signing of annual trade protocols, mutual trade visits, identification of export-import goods, resumption of trade consulates in Shanghai and Bombay, border trade, joint ventures, Memorandum of Understandings, trade agreements development of private ownership etc. From this period onward, trade and economy had become another important pillar of bilateral relations and in 1995 the volume of Sino-Indian bilateral trade had crossed one billion US dollar mark. The present article will explore the successful pattern of Sino-Indian bilateral trade from 1991 to 1995 and the role played by the two Governments for promoting trade and economy as it remains successful even after two decades.
Keywords government, policy, bilateral, trade protocols, institutional, border trade
Theoretical Approaches to the Study of Aging from Psychological Perspective
Sraboni Chatterjee
Abstract The aging process is of course a biological reality which has its own dynamic, largely beyond human control. However, it is also subject to the constructions on the basis of which each society makes sense of old age. Old age basically is the closing period of life span. There are many theories through which aging processes can be explained and psychological aspect is one of them. The aim of the present study is to highlight aging from psychological perspective through eastern and western theoretical approaches. In this study both classical and modern approaches are adopted. The viewpoints of two dimensions are also different. Classical theories describe the structural aspects of aging, whereas modern theories emphasize on how aged individuals adapt social and personality changes into their core frame of mental structure. Life is basically another name of struggle. From the moment of conception to the end of life the individual has to overcome different shades of psycho-social conflict and it depends on the way how society and culture influence the personality pattern of the individual and also how the individual perceives the world and how he/she finds the meaning of his/her existence. Level of activity and the nature of engagement are the two main dimensions through which one can enjoy the fragrance of successful aging. In modern scenario psychological modification strategies are also found to be prosperous in achieving the goal of well-being for the aged individuals.
Keywords psycho-social, conflict, phenomenology, successful, personality, intervention
The 21st Century Modernization of China’s PLA vis-à-vis the Neighborhood and the USA
Salini Das
Abstract Modernization of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is a potential signal towards protecting China’s national interest at home and abroad. The first fold of the Chinese development is that, within the next decade, the PLA primarily focuses on improving naval, air, missile and space capabilities. PLAN on the other hand would solely concentrate on the expansionist operations in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean. Apart from the PLA’s military modernization programs, China, under Xi Jinping is likely to create military strategic guidelines for the PLA. The second fold of the Chinese developments is the robust military modernization of the PLA that represents a contrasting facet to the tall claims made by China in so far as its ‘peaceful rise’ campaign is concerned. Based on the above mentioned ‘modernization’ and ensuing analysis, one is confronted with a piercing question— why is China strengthening its military? The primary intension of the PLA is first to take control over the historic claims of the 9 dash lines (as mentioned in the map published by China in 1990) to conquer the Asia-Pacific and the Indian Ocean region. Secondly, to counter balance the West, particularly USA. From this ground reality, this paper aims to draw an analysis of the growth and development of China’s PLA and necessarily concentrates on the long-drawn regional security imbalances.
Keywords China, Indian Ocean, ASEAN, Asia-Pacific, 9 dash lines
India’s Act East Policy :Prospects and Challenges
Deeplekha Sengupta(Dasgupta)
Abstract With the growing presence of China in the Indian Ocean, and its thriving relations with India’s neighbours onboard, the strategic compulsions of playing a more prominent role in the Asia-Pacific are getting stronger for India. The paper is divided into four main segments. The first section deals with the evolution of India’s foreign policy regarding the Asia-Pacific and offers an analytical account of the major shifts in India’s Act East Policy under Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi vis-à-vis its earlier version, i.e., the Look East Policy. The second section delineates the main components of India’s Act East Policy and its implications for the states in the region. The third section dwells upon the prospects and challenges of a more assertive role of India in East and South-East Asia and is followed by concluding remarks about the future of this policy.
Keywords Act East Policy, ASEAN, CEPA, NDA, ARF
Language Scenario of Mizoram
Mausumi Majumdar
Abstract This paper deals with the language situation of Mizoram which has been studied by observing the seven major languages of Mizoram separately under the domains of education, literature, mass media, religious activities, administration and others. The languages studied are Mizo, Mara, Lai, Paite, Hmar, Riang and Chakma which generally cover the linguistic communities of that state.
As Mizo (Lushei) is the most dominant language of Mizoram, identity crisis of other linguistic communities in Mizoram comes into play. In fact, the expansion of the Lushei dialect appears to be a bar for the development of the dialects of the other linguistic communities in Mizoram. Hence, in this paper, language attitudinal study also plays a major role in describing the linguistic scenario of Mizoram.
Keywords attitude, community, contact, development, identity
The Sacred Scroll Paintings of the Tibetans : Thangka Painting
Salina Thapa
Abstract Thangka, the painted pictorial scrolls in cotton fabric or silk, carry a strong religious character. They are crucial to the religious life of the Tibetans which acts as a medium to evoke the high ideals of Buddhism. This traditional art of the Tibetans being inspired by religion mostly depicts the life and teaching of Buddha, Bodhisattvas, spiritual symbol in Buddhism or Jataka tales. ‘All the components of a Thangka (silk border and central painted component) have iconographical significance’ (Huntington 1970). It is the support of Dharma practice and the tool of Dharma propagation. It represents and preserves the essence of the Dharma. Thangkas are undoubtedly a support of spiritual realization and it is used as didactic aid to illustrate their teaching and as an aid to meditative visualization. Thangka is consecrated after its completion by a Lama and often a mantra is written on the reverse. This consecration ceremony is of utmost importance as it elevates the status of a Thangka from a piece of art to sacred spiritual one, thereby giving its liturgical value. If the Thangka is painted in a genuine way following prescribed canonical authority and artistic tradition then it is very different from an ordinary work of modern art and is inherently highly sacred. An attempt is made in this paper to present the spiritual significance of the Thangka and as a support of religious expression.
Keywords Thangka, Scroll painting, Buddhist, iconography, Jataka, Spiritual, Realization, Expression
The Changing Aspects of Mizo Women Since 1987
Mary Vanlalthanpuii
Abstract There was an assumption based on the Mizoram Accord 1986, ‘The rights and privileges of the minorities in Mizoram as envisaged in the constitution shall continue to be preserved and protected, and their social and economic advancement shall be ensured’. The present paper will focus on the changing roles of Mizo women, especially how women’s roles have changed in the areas of economy, politics, religion and law since the declaration of statehood in 1987. The observation reflects the signing of the “Mizoram Accord” or “Memorandum of Settlement” between the Mizo National Front (MNF) and the Government of India on 30th June 1986, which was supposed to have triggered the socio-economic and political development for all the people of Mizoram including women. The Indian constitution guaranteed equal rights and equal opportunities to women. On the contrary, the nature of society or state has a decisive impact on the position of women. Obviously, the notions of society and the state are often not gender neutral constructs; rather it is the result of both historical factors and experiences. While the Indian democratic state is committed to the protection of individual rights within the context of citizenship, it is important to note that there are historical, social and cultural factors that have limited women’s capacity and chances to exercise their freedom. This paper will try to investigate how far Mizo women are benefited from the promises of the statehood.
Keywords society, patriarchy, feminist, tribe
Water Resources in India’s North East :Sharing of Brahmaputra between Arunachal Pradesh and Assam
Mihir Bhonsale
Abstract The Brahmaputra river which traverses a vast area of India’s Eastern and North Eastern region, and flows through the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya and West Bengal is a mammoth water resource for North-East India. The river has a great potential for development of agriculture, fisheries, transport and generation of electricity. This paper focuses on two riparian states of the Brahmaputra basin, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam where the underutilization of Brahmaputra’s water resource is most prominent. While, Assam faces huge losses due to floods every year, Arunachal Pradesh, an upper riparian state in India allows its water to flow downstream without any intervention. Lack of cooperation between the two states is hindering the development of this huge water resource in the two states.
The paper argues that for sustainable development of the Brahmaputra river, the governments of Arunachal Pradesh and Assam need to cooperate on the principle of Integrated Water Management. At present, the Brahmaputra Board is the only institution dedicated to the riparian states of the Brahmaputra basin. The Centre has proposed a Brahmaputra River Commission involving all Seven Sister States and West Bengal as members of the Commission. However, for any solution to the problem of water sharing, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam need to be considered as the key stakeholders in the institutional mechanism where equitable use of Brahmaputra waters is ensured.
Keywords Brahmaputra, Hydropower, National River Linking Project, Integrated Water Resources Management
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