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Journal - Current Issue

Volume 9, No 1, June 2023
Table of Contents
Introducing Kasohal: A Newly Discovered Palaeolithic Site in the Siwalik Frontal Range, Himachal Pradesh, India
Worrel Kumar Bain & Dwipen Bezbaruah
Abstract The Indian Siwalik Hill is well-known throughout the Indian Subcontinent for producing abundant implimentiferous and fossiliferous sites. Acheulean and Soanian are the most prevalent Palaeolithic technologies in this region, with Acheulean being less common than Soanian. In the absence of absolute dates, lithic technology has been used to compare the Palaeolithic sites from a Chrono cultural point of view. Recent fieldwork in Siwalik Frontal Range of Himachal Pradesh led to the discovery and study of Kasohal and the documentation of lithic assemblage variability, typo-technological traits, and raw material utilization. To better understand the dimensional variances, the lithic data from the site was compared with that of other lithic sites on the Indian Siwalik Hill. The study also focuses on local geology and geomorphology.
Keywords Siwalik Hill, Kasohal, Seer Khad River Basin, Geology, Geomorphology, Lithic technology, Raw Material exploitation
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A Nomadic Tribe Becomes a Settled Agriculturist: The Lodhas - A Stigmatized Criminal Tribe in India in British Period
Samita Manna
Abstract The Lodha, a hunting -gathering tribe in Paschim Medinipur and Jhargram Districts of West Bengal, traversed a long trajectory from nomadic life to settled agriculturist. They are the autochthonous people of the Frontier Bengal1 like the other tribal groups such as Santal, Munda, Bhumij, Ho and others. Among these, the Lodha occupies a significant place in that region due to their socio-economic and religious activities. In colonial period, the Lodhas were identified as a criminal tribe after the amendment of the Act in 1871. In earlier days, they were the forest dwellers and their livelihood was based on hunting -gathering. Due to enforcement of Forest Act in 1865 they were forced to leave the forest and were engaged with different type of criminal activities. But over time they were declared as primitive tribal group by the Government of India like the other two tribal groups, namely, the Toto and Birhor of West Bengal. Now they are known as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG). Since 1960 special attempts were made to make them settled agriculturist by giving them land, agricultural equipments, materials for house construction and the like. Slowly and gradually, they became settled agriculturist with the process of cultural assimilation from the local agricultural communities. On the other hand, many changes have been observed in their socio- cultural and religious life due to the impact of globalization, industrialization, information technology and of many other governmental policies. These are analyzed.
Keywords Frontier Bengal, Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG), Primitive Tribal Group (PTG), Criminal Tribe, Cultural Assimilation
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Understanding the Ancient Heritage of Kṛimilā: An Early Medieval Viṣaya under Śrīnagara Bhukti
Tanmoy Mondal
Abstract The Munger inscription of King Devapala, a ruler under the Pala dynasty of Bengal and Bihar, appraised that in the early medieval period, the southern part of the present Bihar region was known as Śrīnagara Bhukti. Farther more this Bhukti was also divided into three Viṣayas, namely, Rājagriha Viṣaya, Gayā Viṣaya and Kṛimilā Viṣaya. Present research attempts to understand the ancient heritage of the Kṛimilā region through archaeological evidence from a holistic perspective. Those who worked earlier on the archaeology of Kṛimilā, concentrated on inscriptions, sculptures and the studies were of isolated sites. The present work is intended to study the cultural heritage of the Kṛimilā region by analyzing earlier recorded sites with help of independent fieldwork in the Kiul river valley. An effort has also been made to systematically record the archaeological remains scattered in this area.
Keywords Settlement, Habitation, Sculpture, Early Medieval, Kṛimilā, Archaeology
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Tracing the Sacred Geography of Kamarupa in Kālika Purān and Yogini Tantra
Nilkamal Singha & Oinam Ranjit Singh
Abstract In the corpus of religious and Purānic literature of India, Kālika Purān (KP) and Yogini Tantra (YT) are two texts which deal elaborately though not exclusively with the Kāmarūpa (Assam) and its religious shrines along with their geographical features. The latter half of Kālika Purān and almost whole of Yogini Tantra is devoted to the shrines and geography of Kāmarpa and Devi worship. However not every features were identified due to the reasons explained in the article but most of the religious shrines were identified along with the geographical features, which are referred for the identified shrines. The present article is an attempt to study the sacred geography and religious landscape of Kāmarūpa with reference to Kālika Purāna and Yogini Tantra.
Keywords Kālika Purān, Yogini Tantra, Sacred Geography, Kāmarūpa, Kāmākhya, Brahmaputra, V (verse/s)
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Women, Atrocity and Reformation in Colonial India: The burning of Satis in Bengal, 1757-1829
Chanchal Chowdhury
Abstract In the eighteenth century, women’s position in a male-dominated Indian society was discriminatory. Hindu widows were the worst victims of society’s superstitious beliefs and practices. Neither their in-laws nor their parents’ sides welcomed their presence in the family. The orthodox Hindus were required to burn their widows on the funeral pyres of their husbands, irrespective of their ages. During the East India Company’s rule, the largest proportion of widows’ immolations was executed in the Bengal Presidency compared to other parts of India. On most occasions, widows were immolated against their will. Thousands of Bengali widows were burned in the name of Sati rites until 1829. The Christian missionaries were the pioneers who raised their voice against this barbarous custom and urged the government for its abolition. A segment of British civilians, police officers, and members of the judiciary also made their efforts to stop this inhuman custom. Raja Rammohan Roy played a leading and glorious role through his writings and activities for the abolition of Sati rites. Among the Governor-Generals of India, Lord William Bentinck took the real initiative and passed the Sati Prohibition Regulation to ban this atrocious act against women, and the flames of the funeral piles of living widows in Bengal were extinguished.
Keywords Bengal, Widows, Atrocity, Sati, Regulation, Prohibition
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Ethno- nationalistic Attitudes in the novels of Anjum Hasan, Lunatic in My Head and of Bijoya Sawian Shadow Men.
Sk Masikul Ahmmed
Abstract A group of people who share common cultural heritage, ancestral history, tradition, laws, rituals, customs, and overall physical appearance are considered as an ethnic group. Similarly, ethno-nationalism for tribals can be defined as nationalist temperaments dealing with common tribal affiliation, religion, faith, shared language, and common ancestry. Meghalaya is such state where a number of indigenous communities reside. Khasi, Jhantia, and Garos are prominent groups. The region has problem of population influx from different parts of India as well as illegal intrusion from neighboring countries like Bangladesh, China, Bhutan, Myanmar and Nepal. As a result tribal people of the state fear loss of their ethno-cultural identity and apprehend of becoming a minority in their own land. They also think that intruders would snatch the service opportunities both in the government institutes and private sectors and also would hold control over the natural resources and lands of the region. The expressions of such feelings are the result of ethnic movements against the “outsiders.” Based on these facets, this paper, through critical analysis of Anjum Hasan’s Lunatic in My Head (2007) and Bijoya Sawian’s Shadow Men (2010), will focus on how the Meghalaya’s tribal people experience the anxiety of inclusion of the outsiders and undergo sadistic operations to drive out so-called “outsiders.”
Keywords Ethnicity, Inclusion, Outsiders, Indigenous, Minority, Sadistic Operation, Meghalaya
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Study of Occupational Health Hazards among some Women industrial Workers in the state of West Bengal: Issues and Consequences
Moumita Gupta
Abstract Health is most valuable aspect for survival of human beings. Occupational safety deals with all aspects of health and safety in the workplace and has a strong focus on primary prevention of hazards. The present study is based on the investigation at some industrial working places in Purba Medinipur, South 24-parganas and Howrah districts, in order to show the health hazards of working women at different occupational sites, as well as, its immediate cause and possible remedial measures. The study is based on primary data, collected from approximately 100 working women engaged in different occupations at selected factories. Methods applied are Individual and Group Interview, Case studies and Participant Observation method along with Purposive sampling. Selected women working in selected factories experienced occupational health hazards like skin problems, irritation in the eyes, headache, breathing problems like suffocation, as well as muscular and skeletal problems and Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). Compared to male workers, it appears that female workers are more susceptible to occupational hazards in the present research. It is necessary to take proper care against health hazards at work places.
Keywords Health, Occupational Hazards, Working Women, Affected, Factory, Unskilled Workers.
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Wool Weavers of Deccan: History, Social Life and Demand for Reservation
Ram Shepherd Bheenaveni
Abstract The article gives the historical account of the wool weavers and their social life. They are known as Kuruba/va/ma in Karnataka; Kuruma Gollas in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh; Dhangars in Maharashtra; Ahirs in Central India; Pals, Bhagel and Gaderias in Western India, and Yadavs in North India. It also examines how the regional language labelled them with various parochial names, discusses the socio-cultural importance of Gongadi (traditional woollen blanket) in the everyday life of Golla-kurumas living in Telangana State. Eventually highlights their socio-political movement voicing for the status of reservation as Semi-Nomadic Tribe (SNT).
Keywords Semi-Nomadic Tribe; Golla-Kuruma; Puttu Gongadi; Shepherds; Deccan Plateau, Woolen Blanket;
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Linguistic Characteristics of Legal English: An Evaluation
Dhananjay Kumar Tiwari & Arun Kumar
Abstract The main objective of this work is to show the Linguistic properties of Legal English as they are the matter of criticism for their static behaviour. It is claimed that the writing style of law professionals is “dull, wordy, pompous and unclear” (Malakoff, 1963:25). “They prefer to write eight words to say what may be said in two. Seeking to be precise they become redundant” (Wydick, 2005:3). Due to complex legal language, it is the common man who is most ignorant of the system because he or she neither gets the system nor law. Thus, his or her linguistic right is violated in the legal system. The criticism of Legal English is not new and not only raised by non-law people and it is not limited to a country. More or less, it is criticised universally due to its identical and static nature unlike normal languages. Swift (1726) and Jefferson (1817) and many European scholars have criticized Legal English for its static nature. In this analytical study our aim is to observe the lexical features of Legal English which causes complexities. This study is both analytical and descriptive in nature. It is based on a common hypothesis that the Legal English used in the legal system is highly complex and its comprehension needs proper training and practice. We have collected lexical items from different Indian Legal texts that represent the lexical features of Legal English. The main concern in this study is to point out the lexical properties that make Legal English different from general English. It also traces the causes of those properties that make Legal English ‘frozen’ and a matter of criticism.
Keywords linguistics, Legal English, doublets, latent ambiguity, morphology, syntax, semantics
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Techno-militia: Rightwing, Fake News and Cyberspace in India
Dr. P R Biju and Dr. O Gayathri ¬
Abstract Internet is increasingly seen as a war machine where ideas otherwise defeated are deployed for political mobilization. This new form of expression is made possible by an organized army of activists whose true identities remain hidden. Though the forces across the political spectrum are deploying the Internet as a theatre of articulation of their political doctrines, this paper tries to investigate only the activism of right-wing forces that converts the Internet into a war machine. The transformation of the Internet as an ideological apparatus which emphasizes social norms favourable for conservative forces; this research presumes, is made possible by secret band operating through the selective deployment of hashtags, Facebook pages, blogs, YouTube, websites, Instagram, Twitter and Facebook profiles. However, the nature of their activism can be tracked, identified and analyzed to predict their behaviour. Through a digital ethnography on the platform described above and content analysis of material produced and shared for public consumption by these secretive forces, this paper argues that a cultural atmosphere useful for the defense of conservative society is reinvented on the Internet; this paper refers to it as techno-militia. Through a networked channel of activists, who are united for a perceived clan consciousness, worked upon by certain identifiable characteristics is identified and discussed in the paper.
Keywords Techno-militia, Social Media, Right Wing, Hindutva, Internet, Hate Speech, Conservative Forces
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ভারতীয় দন্ডবিধির ৩৭৭ ধারা বিলোপ ও সমকামী মানুষদের লড়াই: একটি পর্যালোচনা
বিশ্বনাথ সরকার
সারসংক্ষেপ যৌন রুচি মানুষের একান্ত নিজস্ব বিষয়, মানুষ তা নিয়েই জন্মায়। কিন্তু প্রাকৃতিক নিয়মের সেই সহজাত রুচিকেই ভারতীয় দন্ডবিধির ৩৭৭ ধারায় ফৌজদারি অপরাধের তকমা দেওয়া হয়েছে। সমকামী যৌন সম্পর্ককে সেখানে প্রকৃতিবিরুদ্ধ বলা হয়েছে। বিষয়টির সঙ্গে যৌন প্রবৃত্তি ছাড়াও লিঙ্গ পরিচয়ের বৃহত্তর প্রশ্ন জড়িত। আইন পরিবর্তিত হলেও প্রত্যেক নাগরিকের মৌলিক অধিকার থেকে সমকামী মানুষেরা এখনও ব্রাত্য। ফলে, সমকামী, উভকামী ও রূপান্তরকামীদের সুরক্ষা, বিবাহ, উত্তরাধিকার, দত্তক সংক্রান্ত অধিকার নিয়ে সাংবিধানিক স্বচ্ছতা দরকার। এখনও The World Values Survey (2006) থেকে প্রাপ্ত পরিসংখ্যানের খুব একটা পরিবর্তন হয়নি। এই সমীক্ষা অনুযায়ী ৪১ শতাংশ ভারতীয় তাদের প্রতিবেশি হিসেবে কোন সমকামীকে চাননা। ৬৪ শতাংশ ভারতীয় আবার কোনভাবেই সমকামকে সমর্থন করেন না। শুধুমাত্র সমকামী যৌন পরিচিতির কারণে ভারতে ৫৬ শতাংশ সমকামী মানুষ তাদের কর্মক্ষেত্রে নানাভাবে হেনস্থা ও বৈষম্যের শিকার হন।১ভারতবর্ষের জনসংখ্যার একটা বড় অংশ এখনও LGBTQIA-দের (LGBTQIA Community-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex and Asexual) নিয়ে ‘হোমোফোবিয়া’-য় ভোগেন। এখনও সমলিঙ্গের বিয়েতে কেন্দ্র সায় দিয়ে উঠতে পারেনি। আসলে সমকামিতার শরীর থেকে অপরাধের তকমা তুলে দিলেই দায়িত্ব শেষ হয়ে যায় না, পথ এখনও অনেক বাকি। সেজন্য, আধিপত্যকামী যৌন বয়ানের অনুসঙ্গে থাকা এই মানুষগুলির 'না-মানুষ' বা প্রান্তিকতা অনুধাবনে '৩৭৭ ধারা' পাঠও তার ধারাবাহিক মূল্যায়নএকান্ত জরুরি।
সূচক শব্দ ভারতীয় দন্ডবিধির ৩৭৭ ধারা, সমকামিতা, উভকামিতা, রূপান্তরকামিতা, যৌন পরিচিতি, ব্যক্তিগত পরিসর।
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Education and Muslims in India: A Reassessment of the Sachar Committee Report
Jayita Das
Abstract Education plays an indispensable role for the progress of any country or society. It has the potential to ensure the economic growth of a nation and to eradicate the socio-economic disparities among the citizens of a country. India is characterized by diverse religions and ethnic minorities. Needless to say, for the development of the country, religious minority communities in India must have equal access to and accomplishments in education. However, as per the Sachar Committee Report, 2006 the condition of the Indian Muslims with respect to their status in education is not at all satisfactory. Their performance is poor at almost all levels of education. This paper tries to evaluate the significance as well as the limitations of the report presented specifically about position of the Muslims in India in case of education. This attempt might pave the way in exploring new areas of investigation in future required to assess the problems and demands of the Muslims in developing their status in the field of education
Keywords Sachar Committee Report review on education, Educational Status of Muslims in India, Muslim educational backwardness.
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Globalisation, Consumerism and the New Middle Class: A Study on Emergence of Mall Culture in Odisha, India
Lushismita Jena & Tattwamasi Paltasingh
Abstract Consumerism is considered to be the by-product of liberalisation and globalisation. India has experienced the great socio-economic transformation after the policy of liberalisation during early 1990s.Consequently, emergence of the new middle class has been noticed. Shopping mall culture has emerged after the opening up of Indian economy and known to be largely a class phenomenon, not a mass phenomenon. Mall culture has become popular in consumerist society and mostly controlled by the corporate magnets. There is a constant striving to enhance the needs of the new middle-class through the proliferation of new products and brands in the malls. This study has been conducted in selected 5 shopping malls in Bhubaneswar city i.e. the capital of Odisha. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents in 5 shopping malls, administering Interview schedule and FGD for data collection. There is an attempt to explore the reasons for consumer preference and attraction towards the malls. Most of the consumers at the malls located in Bhubaneswar belong to the new middle class, having good income with education. They prefer to visit shopping malls due to convenience, entertainment, a medium to depict status symbol, brand preference and availability of more product options with discounts.
Keywords Globalization, Consumerism, New middle class, Shopping mall, Conspicuous consumption
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An analysis of tourist’s satisfaction and perception: A case study of Panchmura Village, Bankura
Atanu Sen
Abstract Folk art & crafts acts as a centre of tourist’s attraction in the sphere of ethnic and cultural tourism. The traditional handmade artefacts are purchased by the tourists for the sake of keeping a tangible memory of their trip. This study tries to explore the perception as well as satisfaction of tourists with regard to terracotta articles produced in Panchmura village of Bankura district. The antique method of procedure and gorgeous traditional designs attract tourists round the year to Panchmura. A wide range of terracotta articles adorns the roadsides of the village. In the year 2018 Panchmura was awarded Geographical Index (GI) tag. A structured questionnaire survey was used to collect data from tourists who visited the village during the survey period. The study is based on primary data. An independent sample T-test was applied which shows the tourists optimal preferences lies on cultural appeal and aesthetic values of terracotta craft ranges. This study proves that in spite of having numerous potentialities and attractions, tourists did not achieve optimal satisfaction. The local stakeholders, planners and developers need to initiate some intensive welfare strategies and business model to enhance the quality and deigns of craft motifs by organizing craft fairs and festivals and remodelling of craft markets in this heritage village
Keywords Folk crafts, Terracotta, Panchmura, Geographical Index.
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