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Journal - Volume 8, No 1, June 2022

Volume 8, No 1, June 2022
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Studies on Peasant Communities: Changing Time and Context
Satyabrata Chakrabarti
Abstract Respected Chairman, Prof. Siva Prasad Ramvatla, the Secretary, Office-bearers of the Executive Council and the Members of the Kolkata Society for Asian Studies, the Advisory Board Members and other Committee Members, its well wishers, Prof. Kumkum Srivastava, wife of late Prof. Vinoy Kumar Srivastava and friends, let me at the outset express my heartfelt gratitude to the organizers for initiating this First Memorial Lecture in honour of late Prof. Vinoy Kumar Srivastava, as well as for bestowing on me this difficult assignment by reposing their faith in me for this task. Personally I feel myself extremely inadequate and unequal to the given responsibility. Friends, before the havoc of the prevailing pandemic situation set in, sometimes in March, 2020, in a massive way, Prof. Vinoy Kumar Srivastava, the then Director of the Anthropological Survey of India and a very loveable friend of mine, one day hinted to me that the Foundation Day Oration of the Survey for the year 2020 will have to be delivered by me. In the remotest imagination it did never occur to me that this encouraging proposal will ever turn into a painful proposition by way of this Memorial Lecture on him, due to the cruel infliction of COVID-19, which snatched his ever vibrant life, little prematurely, bringing gloom to a person like me who stands clearly ten years elder to him. Therefore, notwithstanding my academic limitations, I accepted the request of the Kolkata Society for Asian Studies where both of us got associated since few years back. The task became obviously challenging to me for more than one reasons–first, choosing a topic and next doing justice to that. Vinay in our generation was one of the brilliant and foremost scholars–both as a dedicated teacher as well as an ardent researcher in anthropology, specially social/cultural anthropology. He had a versatile interest in the Discipline, particularly focused in theoretical and methodological issues, based on various cotemporary field situations. It would be eloquent from the list of his publications–professional as well as popular1. His meticulous and critical touch in any presentation–either in print or in public communication–even in private discussions were so lucid and immensely attractive.
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বাংলার কীর্তনে ও গৌড়ীয় নৃত্যে মৃদঙ্গ / শ্রীখোলের গুরুত্ব
হরেকৃষ্ণ হালদার ও মহুয়া মুখোপাধ্যায়
Abstract সাধারণ শ্রোতা হিসাবে কীর্তন গানের নানা উপকরণ সমন্বিত অর্থাৎ শ্রীখোল করতালের ধ্বনি আর সবে মিলে একসঙ্গে গান শুনেই কীর্তন গান বলে চিহ্নিত করে থাকি| ঈশ্বরের কৃতী কথায় গাঁধা যে গান তাকেই কীর্তন বলা হয়| কীর্তন কথাটি এসেছে “কৃ” ধাতু থেকে| কীর্তন কথার আভিধানিক অর্থ হল প্রশংসা| কোন দেবদেবীর লীলা গুণগান বা কোন মহাপুরুষের গুণ গরিমার বর্ণনাকে কীর্তন বলা হলেও মূলত রাধাকৃষ্ণ বিষয়ক লীলা গুণগান করা বা শ্রীচৈতন্য মহাপ্রভুর লীলা গুণগান বৈষ্ণব মহাজন পদকর্তাদের লেখা পদাবলী এক বিশেষ সুরে তালে আখর যোজনা করে, মৃদঙ্গ বা শ্রীখোল করতাল সহযোগে কীর্তনীয়া দোহার বাদকগণ মিলে পরম্পরা গায়ন বাদন রীতিকে কীর্তন গান বলা হয়| শ্রীমদ্ভাগবতে যে নববিধ ভক্তির কথা বলা হয়েছে, তা হল- “শ্রবণং কীর্ত্তনং বিষ্ণু স্মরণং পাদসেবনম্| অর্চ্চনং বন্দনং দাস্যং সখ্যং আত্মনিবেদনম্|” এই শ্লোকে “শ্রবণ ও কীর্তন” প্রথমেই উল্লেখ করেছে| অর্জুনের প্রপুত্র অভিমন্যু পুত্র রাজা পরীক্ষিত তক্ষক দংশনে সাতদিনের মধ্যে মৃত্যুসংবাদ পেয়ে মুনিঋষিগণের পরামর্শে ব্যাসনন্দন শুকদেবমুনির কাছে ভগবৎ কথা শ্রবণ করেন| এই থেকেই ভাগবৎ সপ্তাহ বা পাঠকীর্তন চলে আসছে|
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Supreme Court as the Saviour of Indian Democracy: Reflections on the Kesavananda Bharati Judgment
Brijesh Yadav
Abstract The Indian Supreme Court being the sentinel of the Constitution also assumes the role of conscience keeper in a deepening democracy. Entrusted with the responsibility to protect fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens while ensuring constitutional governance, the Supreme Court also has to shield the soul and spirit of the Constitution from the onslaught of legislative majority by thwarting authoritarianism and autocracy. In post independence period, the apex Court has its own share of glory and controversies at various moments in performance of its above role through exercise of its power of judicial review. This paper argues that the Supreme Court judgment in Kesavananda Bharati case was instrumental in saving of Indian democracy from dangerous onslaught on skeleton of the constitution by a dominant executive and pliant legislature. The milestone judgment in the case resulted in restoration of public faith and trust in an independent judiciary as a strong pillar of democracy, which holds important lessons and inspiration for an institution, which is facing crisis of credibility in recent times.
Keywords Supreme Court, Democracy, Constitution, Parliament, Amendment, Rights, Freedom
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Sunda through the Eyes of Foreign Travellers
Poornima Vithal Naik
Abstract Towards the close of the sixteenth century, Kanara attained significance due to a shift in the Portuguese pepper trade. The pepper trade had a significant impact on the political developments of the region; which at the time was ruled by several major and minor ruling houses such as Nayakas of Ikkeri, Nayakas of Sunda, and Bilgi etc. The focus of this paper is the principality of Sunda in the North Kanara ruled by the Nayakas of Sunda. The kingdom was known by various names such as Sode, Sudhapur, Swadi, Sondabhidana, Sunda, and Sonda. Although a minor kingdom, it has played a significant role in the history of North Kanara and Goa. Several foreign travellers visited the region. They have left behind an account of what they witnessed and understood. Their writings have helped to fill any missing gaps created due to the non-availability of the indigenous sources. Here is an attempt to reconstruct the history of Sunda kings based on the writings of foreign travellers, such as Pietro Della Valle, John Fryer, John Francis Gemelli Careri, Captain Alexander Hamilton, Anquetil Duperron and Francis Buchanan. The account left behind by these travellers is significant to join the missing pieces of the region's history. Although these are valuable sources, one has to take utmost care while using them. Here is an attempt to critically evaluate the writings of these travellers and understand the history of the Sunda kingdom.
Keywords Uttara Kannada, Sunda, pepper, Portuguese, Pietro Della Valle, John Fryer, John Francis Gemelli Careri, Captain Alexander Hamilton, Anquetil Duperron, Francis Buchanan.
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Pattern and Growth of Urbanisation in India during 1991-2011: An Inter-State Analysis
Pritha Kundu & Prankrishna Pal
Abstract Urbanisation is a long-term process for any country, where more and more people are living in the urban sectors and people living in the rural areas are decreasing. From the ancient days this process has been continuing in every country. In urban areas the urban amenities, employment opportunities attract many rural people, and due to rural-urban migration the rate of urbanization is increasing in any economy like India. The urban population has increased from 21.75 crores in 1991 to 28.61 crores in 2001 and to 37.71 crores in 2011. This shows that rate of urbanization has increased from 25.71% in 1991 to 27.78% in 2001 and to 31.14% in 2011. Indian states have varied their total population as well as urban population during the period 1991-2011. Due to globalization, industrialization and infrastructural development of the states have been increasing. Urban growth in the post-liberalization phase would be very high as well as very much diversified among different states. The paper has focused on the pattern, growth, index of urbanization in India and its constituent states during 1991-2011. This paper also discusses the decomposition of growth rates of total population, urban population and urbanization during 1991-2011. Urban population in India has been increasing, but still the number of populations live in urban area is less than the rural population in 2011. Among the bigger states Tamil Nadu and Kerala have shown a satisfactory level of degree of urbanization with above 90% level. But some states like Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh etc. have very low rate of degree of urbanization. Also, the growth of urbanization is not very satisfactory in some states. As the growth of urbanization is taken as a growth of an economy so some urban development policies should be reformulated to attract people. As a result, due to industrialization and infrastructural development our country will become more urbanized. For this we require the formulation and implementation of rigorous urban development policies by the Government of India as well as the State Government.
Keywords Urbanization, Total Population, Urban Population, Degrees of Urbanization,
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A Search for an Identity: A Study of the Sherpas of Sikkim
Rinzing Ongmu Sherpa
Abstract Being a multi-ethnic state, Sikkim has witnessed ethnic politics, more so after the advent of the British. This created ethnic boundaries between the Bhutia, the Lepchas, and the Nepalis which furthered a quest towards asserting their individual political rights. The present paper specifically takes the case of the Sherpas of Sikkim and endeavours to bring to light the issues and challenges they have been facing in asserting their rights, the culmination of which has altogether led them to question their identity within the state. This paper historically analyses their migration pattern, their contested political identity, the role of ethnic associations in asserting their identity and the status of their language within the state. Therefore, it overall critically explores the identity formation of the Sherpas in Sikkim.
Keywords Sherpas, identity, ethnic politics, ethnic groups, associations, language, state and Sikkim
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Anthropological Interface between the Hills and Plains: An understanding from Assam –Meghalaya Border Region
Smita Devi Bora & Dwipen Bezbaruah
Abstract Traditional practices are always informative and can be used as a tool to reconstruct the past culture. In many societies of Northeast India such kind of practices still continue to exist and which had many elements passed on from ancestral generation. The Assam- Meghalaya border area towards the southern part of Kamrup district of Assam is inhabited largely by Khasi, Garo, Karbi and few other caste populations. The subsistence pattern, economic as well as socio-cultural practice and geomorphological location of the region drew attention which leads to exposure of many significant ethnographic and archaeological data. In Assam –Meghalaya border region, there is the prevalence of traditional market system, where there is the evidence of age old practice of barter exchange in the form of Basket exchange, especially by the women, locally known as Hora Solua. Prolific occurrence of ceramic sherds of which the reconstructed versions show close resemblance with respect to shape and size with the utensils used by the present day inhabitants. Erection of megaliths in the memory of deceased clan members has raised the anthropo-archaeological significance of this area. In order to have a comprehensive understanding of the area the researcher tried to analyse the findings from the ethno-archaelogical perspective. The present study reveals that though the culture under study is chronologically modern but economically and anthropologically they are Neolithic or may be later.
Keywords Trade, Pottery, Megalith, Ethno-archaeology, Tradition
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উইলিয়াম কেরী ও অবিভক্ত দিনাজপুর (১৭৯৪-১৭৯৯ খ্রিস্টাব্দ): একটি ঐতিহাসিক অনুসন্ধান
স্বপন কুমার পাইন
প্রবন্ধসার বাংলায় আগত মিশনারীদের মধ্যে অন্যতম গুরুত্বপূর্ন ছিলেন ড. উইলিয়াম কেরী। যদিও নীলকর সাহেব হিসাবে ১৭৯৪ খ্রীঃ তৎকালীন দিনাজপুর জেলার মদনাবতীতে তাঁর আবির্ভাব ঘটেছিল, কিন্তু দিনাজপুরের সমাজ ও শিক্ষা ব্যবস্থায় তিনি যে ছাপ রেখে গিয়েছিলেন তা আজও ঐতিহাসিকদের মনে বিস্ময়ের উদ্রেক করে। তিনি নীলকর সাহেব হিসাবে কতটা সফল হয়েছিলেন সেবিষয়ে ঐতিহাসিক মহলে বিতর্ক থাকলেও দিনাজপুরের সমাজ এবং শিক্ষাজগতে তাঁর গুরুত্বপূর্ণ অবদান ছিল সেবিষয়ে কোনো সন্দেহ নেই। কারন তাঁর অধীনস্থ মদনবতীর নীলকুঠী অঞ্চলে তিনি শুধুমাত্র শিক্ষালয় স্থাপন করেননি, শিক্ষালয়ে শিক্ষার স্বার্থে তিনি সেখানকার নীলচাষীদের বাধ্যতামূলক নীলচাষ থেকেও অব্যাহতি দিয়েছিলেন। কেরী তাঁর জীবনের গুরুত্বপূর্ণ ৬ বছর (১৭৯৪-১৭৯৯ খ্রি.) দিনাজপুরের মদনাবতী নামক অখ্যাত একটি গ্রামে কাটিয়েছিলেন এবং সেখান থেকেই প্রথম সমাজ ও শিক্ষা সংস্কারের বীজ বপন করেছিলেন। দিনাজপুরে উইলিয়াম কেরীর কর্মকাণ্ডের বিষয়ে গবেষকরা খুব বেশি তথ্য সরবরাহ করতে পারেননি। অর্থাৎ ‘তল থেকে দেখা ইতিহাস’ এই স্লোগান যদি বাস্তবায়িত করতে হয়, তাহলে উইলিয়াম কেরীর স্মৃতি বিজড়িত দিনাজপুরের এই ছোট্ট মদনাবতীতে কেরীর অবস্থানের পুঙ্খানুপুঙ্খ বিচার বিশ্লেষণ করা প্রয়োজন। লেখকের এই প্রবন্ধের মূল উদ্দেশ্য হল, মদনাবতী তথা দিনাজপুরের ইতিহাসে উইলিয়াম কেরীর সমাজ ও শিক্ষাক্ষেত্রে যে অবদান এখনও অনাবিষ্কৃত রয়েছে, তাকে ইতিহাসের পাতায় তুলে আনা।
সূত্রশব্দ উইলিয়াম কেরী, মদনাবতী, দিনাজপুর, নীলকুঠী, মিশনারি, মুদ্রণ যন্ত্র, সতীদাহ
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ঔপনিবেশিক বাংলায় চিকিৎসাবিদ্যায় নারীর উত্তরণ : ঊনবিংশ শতকের তিন মহিলা চিকিৎসকের অবদানের ভিত্তিতে একটি ফিরে দেখা অধ্যায়
নূপুর দত্ত
Abstract ঊনবিংশ শতকের প্রারম্ভে সমাজ সংস্কারের ফলে স্ত্রী শিক্ষা বিষয়েও অনেক সংস্কার করা হয়। খ্রীষ্টান মিশনারীদের উদ্যোগে এই শিক্ষার সূত্রপাত হয়। নবজাগরণের ফলে সমাজে আলোকিত বুদ্ধিজীবি সম্প্রদায়ের আবির্ভাব ঘটে। এ্ররা পাশ্চাত্য শিক্ষাকে বরণ করার সাথে সাথে স্ত্রী শিক্ষাকেও সমর্থন করে। স্ত্রী শিক্ষা সম্পর্কিত যে সব কুসংস্কার সমাজে প্রচলিত ছিল তারা সেগুলি দূর করতে তৎপর হয়। বিভিন্ন পত্র-পত্রিকায় লেখনীর মাধ্যমে স্ত্রী-শিক্ষার বিষয়টি জোরালো হয়ে ওঠে। ব্রাহ্মসমাজের উদ্যোগে স্ত্রী-শিক্ষা বহুলাংশে বিস্তারলাভ করে। এছাড়া ঈশ্বরচন্দ্র বিদ্যাসাগর রামমোহন রায়, কেশবচন্দ্র সেন, শিবনাথ শাস্ত্রী প্রমুখ সমাজসংস্কারকরা এ বিষয়ে অগ্রণী ভূমিকা নিয়েছিলেন। প্রথম দিকে ঔপনিবেশিক সরকার এ বিষয়ে উদাসীন ছিলেন। তারা ভারতের অন্দরমহলে প্রবেশ করতে চাননি। কিন্তু খ্রীষ্টান মিশনারীদের উদ্যোগে ও ভারতের সমাজ সংস্কারকদের চাপে ব্রিটিশ সরকার কিছু ইতিবাচক পদক্ষেপ নিতে বাধ্য হন। ব্রাহ্ম মেয়েরা ও খ্রীষ্টান ধর্মান্তরিত ভারতীয় নারীরা উচ্চ শিক্ষার পথে অগ্রসর হয়। শিক্ষা ও চিকিৎসা – এই দুটি বিষয় ছিল তাদের মূল আগ্রহের বিষয়। ধীরে ধীরে মেডিকেল কলেজগুলি নারীদের ভর্তির অনুমতি দিলে চিকিৎসাবিদ্যায় নারীদের অনুপ্রবেশ ঘটে। কিন্তু তাদের এই পথ মোটেও সুগম ছিল না। নানা সামাজিক ঘাত প্রতিঘাতের মধ্যে দিয়ে চিকিৎসা বিদ্যায় কিছু ভারতীয় নারী কৃতিত্ব অর্জন করেছিল। এই লেখনীর মাধ্যমে আমরা ঔপনিবেশিক বাংলার তিনজন কৃতি চিকিৎসক কাদম্বিনী গাঙ্গুলী, যামিনী সেন ও হৈমবতী সেনের কৃতিত্ব ও কার্যাবলী বিশ্লেষণ করে তাদের উত্তরণের পর্যায়টি ফিরে দেখব।
শব্দসূচক চিকিৎসাবিদ্যা, স্ত্রী-শিক্ষা, ঔপনিবেশিক বাংলা, পাশ্চাত্য চিকিৎসা, হাসপাতাল, অন্তঃপুরবাসিনী, মহিলা চিকিৎসক।
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Health and Nutritional status of working slum women residing on natural lavee of the River Hugli in Chandernagore Municipal Corporation, Hugli, West Bengal.
Mitali Ghosh & Shovan Ghosh
Abstract Slum women never reach the ultimate growth potential due to nutritional deprivation. The urban slum women, particular among the lower income group with body mass index below or above the normal level would have a higher risk. The present paper explains the interrelationship between Body Mass Index and other socio-economic as well as demographic variables of women slum dwellers residing on natural lavee of the river Hugli in Chandernagore Municipal Corporation in Hugli District, West Bengal. It also scrutinizes the differences between working and non-working slum women in various aspects, such as age, income group, education level, food habits etc. A cross -sectional study was conducted between December, 2019 to February, 2020 and purposive sampling technique was applied to select the target population. The information is linkable to the 48 working and 52 non-working slum women aged between 15-49 of eleven slums. The results showed that the working women were significantly differed from the non-working women in case of education, family income and some food products consumed by them. Their BMI was significantly related their age, working hour and number of meal intake. This has direct bearing on the deficiency of protein consumption of slum women irrespective of their working pattern, in so far as women income and family income is concerned.
Keywords Body Mass Index, dietary habits, obesity, recommended Dietary Allowances, underweight.
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Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Education in British India: A Historical Perspective
Malika Basu (Ghosh)
Abstract Indian Civilization is undoubtedly one of the oldest civilizations in the world. The noteworthy role of Indian civilization is being revealed in medical science also. In this context, it is worth mentioning that introduction of western medicine and its allied pharmacy and pharmaceutical education in colonial India has nowadays become a rapidly expanding subject of research concern. Against such a backdrop, the present paper hopes to investigate the beginning of medico pharmaceutical profession and parallelly the beginning of pharmaceutical education in different Presidencies of British India in a condensed and unwavering manner. Both primary and secondary sources have been used for the present study. Finally, the paper reveals that the institutionalization of pharmacy and pharmaceutical education also acted as a vital agent to accept western medicine more convincingly.
Keywords Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical, Education, Colonial, Medical, India.
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Conscientization of Dalit Women in India: A Study in Historical and Political Discourse
Bula Rani Howlader
Abstract The researcher has attempted to study the conscientization of Dalit women in India's historical and political backdrop. Conscientization is a post-Marxist theoretical concept propounded by Paulo Freire, an educational theorist from Brazil. The term denotes a critical awareness or consciousness of either a person or any group/community about their real position in society. Conscientization is achievable through a process of relentless contemplation, consideration, and activities towards its realization. Dalit women’s critical understanding of their social reality or conscientization does not take place in a day. Their conscientization is perceptible in the Dalit feminist movement that takes both time and tide to gain its current momentum. Being critically conscious of the social reality, Dalit feminists started to form their standpoints. There are ample testimonies in Indian history and polity to substantiate the view that Dalit women were unaware of their caste subalternity and gender subalternity but during the 1990s they started their struggle separately and independently to establish their rights.
Keywords Conscientization, Dalit, women, history, politics, society, movement, feminism
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A Review on Open Air Defecation post Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in Tamil Nadu: Prevalence and Determinants
V. Vijay Devanesan. & Rohit Thomas Abraham
Abstract Open Air Defecation has been an immortal evil in most of the developing countries with its impact ranging from socio-economic to health aspects. This issue becomes severe when it calls for public health interventions especially when the women and children of the rural households are prone to the dangers associated with the practice. The cause of the problem is also quite wide and deep. It ranges from economic constraints to restrictions to behavioural change. The immediate and the long-term effect of this practice often falls in the health domain. The people practicing this evil existence are not only prone to contacting diseases but also can be instrumental in spreading the same to others. The problem gets coupled when the burden falls on Below Poverty Line (BPL) families. The loss of health due to the spread of diseases leads to the loss of school days, labour days and wage opportunities. This review paper focuses on the prevalence of Open-Air Defecation (If still in practice), the socio-cultural and economic determinants for practicing Open Air Defecation and the impact of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in India, with Tamil Nadu in particular.
Keywords Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Open Air Defecation, Open Defecation Free, Latrines.
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Language, Culture and Biodiversity: Issues Concerning North East India
Joy Dasgupta & Sarit Kumar Chaudhuri
Abstract The concept of bio-diversity emerged as one of the central concerns in the end part of the 20th century to understand issues of utilization as well as sustainability which is intricately linked with concept of cultural diversity. This concept is also created unique niche to address the right and knowledge system of the Indigenous people across the globe and thus leading to the importance of language which is the key for transmission of such huge knowledge systems. The present paper is an attempt to explore the such linkages between bio-cultural diversity and languages taking North East India as a wider context and citing multiple examples from the state of Arunachal Pradesh, which is one of the bio-diversity hotspots having large number of Indigenous people who are still having close ties with their surrounding ecosystems.
Keywords Bio-diversity, cultural- diversity, conservation, legal regime, tribe, indigenous people, knowledge systems, edible plants.
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