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Journal - Current Issue

Volume 9, No 2, December 2023
Table of Contents
Ethical Dilemmas in Anthropology: A note on Issues and Concerns
Sarit K. Chaudhuri
Abstract This paper deals with the notion of ethics and its implications in the context of the discipline of anthropology and how it operates across the existing institutional mechanisms. This paper also deals with the comparative locations of the anthropologist beyond the binaries of ‘insider’ versus ‘outsider’ discourse. Taking cues from the Indian North East, this paper finally tries to shed some light on the post-modern ethical concern in the context of the evolving discipline of anthropology.
Keywords ethics, morality, philosophy, ethnography, emic, etic, postmodern
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An Archaeological Study of Pot Sherds Found From the Site Garh Panchakot in Purulia District of West Bengal, India
Abhishek Bhowmick & Debasis Kumar Mondal
Abstract Garh Panchakot is a historical site situated in the foothills of the Panchet hill in the Purulia district of West Bengal, India. It is a famous tourist spot which preserves the remnants of ancient temple complex and fort.

During the visit to Garh Panchakot, present authors noticed huge number of pot sherds scattered in nearby jungle areas. These pot sherds bear the ancient features. Present study focuses on this ceramic assemblage found in and around the site. The study is done through systematic study and analysis of the potsherd that are found in the area. Focus has been given on morphological, technological and functional attributes. As an archaeological reminiscence, present study may help to shed light on the past activities centering round the temples and some hidden facts of past history of Gar Panchkot.
Keywords Archaeology, pot sherds, assemblage, activities, history, Garh Panchkot
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Awareness of Legal Rights and Its Practices among Prospective Women Teachers
Subasini. N. & N. Sasikumar
Abstract This study looked at the legal rights and practices of prospective women teachers. The primary purpose of this examination is to identify women prospective educators who are conversant with legal rights and practices. This study’s sample included 300 prospective women teachers. In this circumstance, the descriptive method was applied. They were chosen using simple random sampling. According to the review findings, teacher educators' awareness of legal rights and practices varied greatly depending on the college type, location of college, marital status, and parents’ education.
Keywords Awareness, Fundamental Rights, Legal Rights and Women prospective Teachers
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Development Issues and Media Attention in Regional Press: An Evaluation of Eastern Himalaya Newspapers with a Special Focus on Coverage of Development Stories in Sikkim
Mahendra Prasad Gurung
Abstract The role of the newspaper in introducing a democratic corner of discussion in societies whether developing or developed is well established. The ability of newspapers in pointing fingers at the lopsided developmental process as well as the uneven distribution of developmental resources is well recognized in a liberal society with democratic norms firmly in place. While the role of newspapers in societal development is firmly entrenched in the collective discourse, the discursive role of print media in development through information supply or cultivating appropriate attitudes towards development is yet to take a concrete shape in many developing societies. Therefore this work tried to explore the role of the press in the Eastern Himalayan region of India in situating development as a part of the societal narrative through an analysis of the contents of four major newspapers of the region with a primary focus on the coverage of development issues in Sikkim, the newest state of Indian Union and the eighth member of North Eastern Council. The study has adopted content analysis as a method and finds out that the newspapers of the region consider development as an also-run narrative, depend mostly on agencies or government sources for news collection, offer no editorial direction, and publish mostly event based stories with a pro-government orientation.
Keywords Issue salience, Editorial prominence, Sources of news, Slant in news stories, Orientation
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Education Loans in South India: Trends and Flows & Beneficiaries’ Perceptions
Krishnan Chalil & Md Asraul Hoque
Abstract In the eighteenth century, women’s position in a male-dominated Indian society was discriminatory. Hindu widows were the worst victims of society’s superstitious beliefs and practices. Neither their in-laws nor their parents’ sides welcomed their presence in the family. The orthodox Hindus were required to burn their widows on the funeral pyres of their husbands, irrespective of their ages. During the East India Company’s rule, the largest proportion of widows’ immolations was executed in the Bengal Presidency compared to other parts of India. On most occasions, widows were immolated against their will. Thousands of Bengali widows were burned in the name of Sati rites until 1829. The Christian missionaries were the pioneers who raised their voice against this barbarous custom and urged the government for its abolition. A segment of British civilians, police officers, and members of the judiciary also made their efforts to stop this inhuman custom. Raja Rammohan Roy played a leading and glorious role through his writings and activities for the abolition of Sati rites. Among the Governor-Generals of India, Lord William Bentinck took the real initiative and passed the Sati Prohibition Regulation to ban this atrocious act against women, and the flames of the funeral piles of living widows in Bengal were extinguished.
Keywords Higher Education, Financing Education, perceptions, Education loan, Model education loan scheme
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Different Stages of Elimination of the Indian Girl Child
Poonam Magu
Abstract The paper focuses on various issues related to the killing of a girl child in India. A declining sex ratio is an indication of this heinous act still being carried out in the modern world. The uniqueness of this situation is that the killing is done by the family members themselves. In some cases, it could be the mother too! What makes a mother want to take the life of her own child? Are the reasons linked to her own journey from herself being the ‘unwanted’ girl to a woman whose main purpose is to give the family a male? A male who will carry on with the patriarchal system with the woman as his chief ally? The paper looks at the various stages of elimination of the girl child starting from killing of the desire to bear a female child to the killing of the foetus - female foeticide, then the newborn baby- female infanticide and finally killing the girl child by neglect. The girl who manages to survive becomes a woman - now ready to give birth. The cycle starts again! Should she bring her own version into this world so that she too is subjugated to all that she herself had to endure? Or is there another way? The paper looks at some of the options that the parents resort to in India.
Keywords Indian girl child, patriarchal system, female foeticide, female infanticide, sex ratio
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Malabar Woods: Colonial Encirclement for Scientific Conservation or Systematic Exploitation?
Priyanka Guha Roy
Abstract Malabar forests had been known in India’s forest history as producing high quality of Teak. But these teak trees were mercilessly cut and destroyed for ship building purpose during the company administration in Malabar. The article appears interesting in the sense that this was done much before the promulgation of Forest acts which supposedly claimed to have been legislated to implement ‘scientific forestry’ for Indian forests which were being denuded and destroyed by the pre-colonial administration. So the Malabar forest destruction opens up a new arena of study in the forest history of India .That calculated forest destruction for colonial interests was the main intention of forest administrators and this was carefully concealed under the notion of scientific forestry. Malabar forests were first among the equals in regard to the realization of this motive. Thus the essay offers a separate niche to the study of colonial ecological history in the way of mapping the destruction of Teak forests of Malabar.
Keywords Colonial administration, East India Company, Industrial Revolution, Ship Building, Malabar Teak, Scientific Conservation, Forest Rangers, Teak Felling, Forest Exploitation, Ship Building
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A Study of Aggression and Academic Procrastination among Students
Ujjwala Sadaphal
Abstract In the prehistoric age, aggression helped our ancestors in their survival struggle. Although considered a negative character in modern society, it is still prevalent. Aggression is a behaviour directed to harm others but the other one tries to escape from such harm. Personal, environmental, and situational factors influence aggression. Procrastination is an intentional delay by choosing one activity over the other. Delaying work earlier and making a last-minute rush for completing the task may cause aggression among students. The study explores the relationship between aggression and four areas of academic procrastination and assesses the aggression among students with high and low levels of academic procrastination. In this quantitative study, the normative survey method was used. The sample of 248 ninth-class students was collected using the convenience sampling method. Data was collected in the academic session 2021-2022 immediately after the COVID-19 lockdown. The tools used were Aggression Scale by R. L. Bharadwaj (2008) and the Academic Procrastination Scale by Ashok Kalia and Manju Yadav (2015). There is a significant and positive relationship between aggression and academic procrastination in four sub-areas. Students with high and low levels of academic procrastination differ significantly in aggression.
Keywords Aggression and Academic Procrastination
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Reading Orientalism in John Tallis’s Map of Northern India
Deepak Kumar, Ravindra Kumar & Nilkamal Singha
Abstract Cartographic history, in the last couple of decades has witnessed an increasing influence of Edward Said’s Orientalism. Colonial discourses created an image of India that reflected its own prejudices and stereotypes. Colonial Maps of India as part of this discourse reflect this perception, and intent. Deriving from ‘orientalism’ in general and ‘imagined geographies’ in particular, the present essay explores the vignettes in John Tallis’s, Map of Northern India. It is argued that in these imaginative geographies Europeans represented a distorted, oriental, ‘other’ image of India.
Keywords cartography, vignette, orientalism, colonialism, Eurocentric, binary
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Women and election in Manipur: Some notes from the field
Diana Naorem, Ngasepam Cinthoibi Chanu, Oinam Sarita Devi & Chitrabala Sambanduram
Abstract Internet is increasingly seen as a war machine where ideas otherwise defeated are deployed for political mobilization. This new form of expression is made possible by an organized army of activists whose true identities remain hidden. Though the forces across the political spectrum are deploying the Internet as a theatre of articulation of their political doctrines, this paper tries to investigate only the activism of right-wing forces that converts the Internet into a war machine. The transformation of the Internet as an ideological apparatus which emphasizes social norms favourable for conservative forces; this research presumes, is made possible by secret band operating through the selective deployment of hashtags, Facebook pages, blogs, YouTube, websites, Instagram, Twitter and Facebook profiles. However, the nature of their activism can be tracked, identified and analyzed to predict their behaviour. Through a digital ethnography on the platform described above and content analysis of material produced and shared for public consumption by these secretive forces, this paper argues that a cultural atmosphere useful for the defense of conservative society is reinvented on the Internet; this paper refers to it as techno-militia. Through a networked channel of activists, who are united for a perceived clan consciousness, worked upon by certain identifiable characteristics is identified and discussed in the paper.
Keywords Women, election, political participation, party workers, representation, Manipur
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An Exploration of the causes of domestic violence against married women
Disari Roy
সারসংক্ষেপ Domestic violence takes place both urbanized and developing countries. The issue of domestic violence gained prominence in the wake of the women’s movement of the 1970s, and from that time concerns about wives being beaten by their husbands took on greater importance. Crimes of domestic violence are underreported. Reasons for reluctance to report a case of domestic violence include lack of vigilance with the legal system, an inability to pay legal fees, and societal reaction when a woman decides to end a violent relationship. Violence against women and girls hurts and harms people physically, psychologically, financially and sexually. Domestic violence can take many forms, including physical, sexual, financial, emotional and verbal. Violence manifests itself in female foeticide, female infanticide, dowry death, abduction, eve teasing, and sexual harassment of women in the workplace. Focusing on victims and perpetrators, this paper attempts to examine what constitutes domestic violence, and provides an in-depth analysis of the factors that contribute to domestic violence against married women.
সূচক শব্দ Domestic violence, Married women, Patriarchy, Gender Inequality, Cultural norms
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Illuminating Dark Spaces: The American Baptist Women Missionaries and the Zenana System in Assam
Lindy Lou Goodwin
Abstract The system of seclusion of women in closed quarters called Zenanas was practiced throughout India including the north-eastern state of Assam. This practice was followed in India since early times which continued in the colonial period. The missionary women of the American Baptist mission in Assam endeavoured to reach the women confined in the Zenanas and provide them with basic education and health care facilities. The interaction between the secluded women and the missionary women had a profound effect on the condition of the former. The paper explores the struggles of the missionary women to improve the lot of the women confined in Zenanas in Assam amidst a strongly patriarchal atmosphere. An attempt to highlight the changes brought about in the lives of the native women as result of the Zenana mission has also been made. Further, the complexities of the imperialist notions of missionary women and the impact which the Zenana mission was able to make on their lives have also been touched upon.
Keywords Women, American Baptist, Assam, Missionaries, Zenana, Patriarchy
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Low Skilled Labour Migration Corridor: A Study on Jangipur Sub Division, Murshidabad District, West Bengal, India
Sandip Tah
Abstract According to the HDI Report (2014) Murshidabad is a backward district. Majority of the local impoverished people are willing to leave their homes in search of jobs that will support their family because of less jobs opportunity in this area. Since the previous few decades, a considerable number of people from the study area have migrated both domestically and internationally. This paper mainly examines the fact that local migrants are taking specified routes to travel between their points of origin and their final destinations, creating specific migration corridors. The systematic explorations of these migration routes and the connections or intermediaries involved in their ongoing operation have received particular attention. Remittances have been thoroughly investigated as a topic. The entire region is regarded as a pocket of ongoing out migration. In its entirety, this paper explores several particular aspects of out-migration from Jangipur Sub Division, Murshidabad district, West Bengal.
Keywords Migration Corridor; HDI; Jangipur Sub Division; Out migration; Domestic and International destination
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পূর্ব ডুয়ার্সের সামাজিক পরিবেশ ও তিলোত্তমা মজুমদারের উপন্যাস
দীপিকা বাড়ই
Abstract জীবন সম্পর্কে লেখকের মনের অনুভব বা অভিজ্ঞতালব্ধ উপলব্ধির কথাই হল সাহিত্য। আর লেখকের এই অনুভব বা উপলব্ধির ক্ষেত্রে বিরাট জায়গা নিয়ে রয়েছে তার চারপাশের পরিবেশ বা পারিপার্শ্বিক অবস্থা। কেননা মানুষ কখনোই প্রকৃতি ও পরিবেশ ভিন্ন নয়। ফলত লেখকের মনোভাব বা মননের বিকাশে পারিপার্শ্বিক পরিবেশের অতি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ ভূমিকা রয়েছে। সাহিত্যের অন্যতম শাখা উপন্যাস রচনার ক্ষেত্রেও একটি অন্যতম উপাদান পরিবেশ বা পটভূমি বা অঞ্চল। সমালোচকেরা সময়ের প্রবাহমানতায় উপন্যাস রচনার ক্ষেত্রে এই পরিবেশের গুরুত্ব নিয়ে প্রশ্ন তুললেও এবং জীবনজিজ্ঞাসা বা জীবনবোধ প্রকাশ করাকে মূলকথা মনে করলেও, পরিবেশের ভূমিকা একেবারে ফেলনা নয়। বরং পরিবেশ নির্বাচন এবং উপস্থাপন কৌশল একজন লেখকের নিজস্বতাকে স্পষ্ট করে। যার শিল্পীত প্রয়োগ শিল্পকর্মটিকে নির্দিষ্ট স্থান, কালের হয়েও কালোত্তীর্ণ স্তরে পৌঁছে দেয়।

বিশ শতকের নব্বইয়ের দশকের কথাসাহিত্যিক তিলোত্তমা মিজুমদারের ক্ষেত্রেও এর ব্যতিক্রম হয় নি। তিনি জন্মসূত্রে উত্তরবঙ্গের প্রান্তীয় অঞ্চল ডুয়ার্সের কালচিনি চা বাগান ব্লক এলাকার নিবিড় স্পর্শ লাভে বেড়ে উঠেছেন। বর্তমানে তিনি কলকাতার বাসিন্দা হলেও শৈশব, কৈশোর, তারুণ্যের কাটানো দিনগুলিতে গাছ-পালা, ছোট-বড় অসংখ্য নদী-ঝোরা, পাহাড়-অরণ্য, পশু-পাখি, জীব-জন্তু ইত্যাদি প্রাকৃতিক বৈচিত্র্যে সমৃদ্ধ যে ডুয়ার্স অঞ্চলকে দেখেছেন তার নিবিড় প্রতিফলন ঘটেছে তাঁর প্রথম দিককার রচিত উপন্যাসগুলিতে। তাছাড়া উত্তরবঙ্গের ডুয়ার্স অঞ্চলে বিশেষত পূর্ব ডুয়ার্সে (যার সীমানা তোর্ষা নদী থেকে আসাম ঘেষা সংকোশ নদী পর্যন্ত) এমন অনেক জনগোষ্ঠীর বসবাস রয়েছে, যারা যুগ যুগ ধরে শত বাধা-বিপত্তি, পরিবেশ-পরিস্থিতির প্রতিকূলতা, পরিবর্তনের মধ্যেও স্বজাতির পরম্পরাগত রীতি-নীতি, বিশ্বাস-সংস্কার, আচার-আচরণ, ভাষাচর্চা ইত্যাদির নিরিখে জীবনধারণ ও জীবনযাপন করে চলেছে। তাদের যাপিত এই জীবনে জড়িত প্রকৃত-লগ্ন আদিম সমাজের বিভিন্ন উপকরণ, যা এখনো তার কুমারিত্ব বা মৌলিকতা হারায় নি কিংবা ‘অন্য’ সাংস্কৃতিক উপাদানের সঙ্গে মিশে যায় নি, তাকে কৌম বা আদিম জনজাতির উপাদান বলা হয়—যা তাঁর উপন্যাস থেকে বাদ যায় নি। এই অঞ্চলের বিচিত্র উপাদান নিয়ে রচিত হয়েছে তাঁর আখ্যানবিশ্ব এবং আখ্যানসূত্রে পাওয়া যায় নতুন জীবনের ঘ্রাণ। তিনি কীভাবে এবং কেমন করে ডুয়ার্সের এই সামাজিক পরিবেশকে উপন্যাসে তুলে এনে শৈল্পিক প্রতিভার স্বাক্ষর রেখেছেন তা অনুসন্ধান করাই এই গবেষণা-নিবন্ধের মুখ্য বিষয়।
Keywords কৌম--জনগোষ্ঠী, গিরমিটিয়া—চুক্তিবদ্ধ কর্মী, কন্দ--খাবার বিশেষ, পিলুয়া--চা গাছের ক্ষতিকারক কীট, কুকরি--মাটি খোঁড়ার যন্ত্র, ফারুয়া--কোদাল, তবল--কুঠার, ডিবরি--কুপি, টোকরি--পাত্রবিশেষ, পোষ্টি--খাবার বিশেষ (গরম ভাতে জল ঢেলে কাঁচকলা মেখে খাওয়া)।
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সাঁওতালদের লোককাহিনী ও প্রকৃতির সন্তান হিসাবে সাঁওতালদের অধ্যয়ন
বাবলু মুর্মু
Abstract দক্ষিণ এশিয়ার দেশগুলো সাঁওতাল উপজাতির আবাসস্থল। যদিও তারা বিভিন্নদেশে ছড়িয়ে ছিটিয়ে আছে, তবে বেশির ভাগ সাঁওতাল ভারত ও বাংলাদেশে পাওয়া যায়। সাঁওতাল লোকেরা নিজেদের কে মূলত প্রাকৃতিক প্রাণী হিসেবে বর্ণনা করে। এই দাবি কিছু পণ্ডিতদের কাছ থেকে সমর্থন পাওয়া গেছে যারা সাঁওতাল আচার-অনুষ্ঠান এবং উত্সব বিশ্লেষণ করেছেন। তবে খুব কম গবেষণাই সাহিত্যিক দৃষ্টি কোণ থেকে সাঁওতালদের পরিচয় সংজ্ঞায়িত করার চেষ্টা করেছে। অতএব, তাদের লোককাহিনী পরীক্ষা করে, এই নিবন্ধটির লক্ষ্য এই ধারণাটি প্রদর্শন করে যে সাঁওতালরা প্রকৃতির সন্তান। গবেষণাটি জাতীয় লোককাহিনী তত্ত্ব, সাংস্কৃতিক কার্যকরী তত্ত্ব এবং বাস্তবতার তত্ত্বদ্বারা পরিচালিত হয়েছিল। গুণগত গবেষণাটি 27 টি সাঁওতাল লোককাহিনীর পাঠ্য বিশ্লেষণের উপর ভিত্তি করে করা হয়েছিল। এই কাগজের যুক্তি হল যে সাঁওতাল লোককাহিনী গুলি তাদের প্রথা, সংস্কৃতি এবং পরিচয় সম্পর্কে জ্ঞানের ভান্ডার হিসাবে কাজ করে। গবেষণার ফলাফল থেকে, এটা স্পষ্ট যে সাঁওতালরা প্রকৃতিতে এবং তার মধ্যে বাস করে। তাদের প্রকৃতির সাথে এমন ঘনিষ্ঠ সম্পর্ক রয়েছে যেমন একজন পিতামাতা বা ভাইবোনের সাথে থাকে। তারা তাদের জীবন ধারায় প্রকৃতির সরলতা অনুকরণ করে। এমনকি তারা যে আত্মাদের উপাসনা করে এবং শ্রদ্ধা করে তারা প্রকৃতিতে বাস করে বলে মনে করা হয়। সুতরাং, সাঁওতালরা প্রকৃতি থেকে জন্মগ্রহণ করে এবং প্রকৃতির অন্যান্য প্রাণীর সাথে পারস্পরিক ভাবে উপকারী এবং ভাগ করা জায়গায় বিদ্যমান।
Keywords সংস্কৃতি, প্রকৃতির সন্তান, সাঁওতাল পরিচয়, ঐতিহ্য
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